Components of the Militia
When asked what the Militia was, George Mason, one of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution, said, "Who are the Militia? They consist now of the whole people, except for a few public officers." Yet we also see statutes like 10 USC 311, which defines it as "all able-bodied males at least 17 years of age and, except as provided in section 13 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States." Some state statutes define it as "able-bodied males" of different age ranges, such as 16 through 59. These statutes also divide the Militia into various classes, such as "organized" or "unorganized", in the case of 10 USC 311, or "active" and "reserve", as many states do, with "active" being considered the National or State Guards, but not the national armed forces.
To understand how these definitions have arisen, one must first understand what the Framers of the U.S. Constitution had in mind for the new Republic they had created. They allowed for a standing national army, but insisted that it be kept small, and although it might be the first force to be called out, and the only force to be sent abroad, the primary defense of the country was to be the duty of ordinary citizens, who would be kept in a state of military readiness while leading their normal lives, and who would be called up to "repel invasions, suppress insurrections, or execute the laws", for limited periods of time. At the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789, the well-established tradition was for local militia units to be kept in a state of readiness in each and every community. Such units were organized and trained locally, perhaps led by the local town or county officials, but otherwise independent of official control when not actually called up for service.
When lawmakers tried to define the "militia" by statute to consist of less than the entire body of citizens, they were defining those citizens who would be required to be kept in a state of readiness, as was done in the Militia Act of 1792, which required able-bodied males age 17 through 44 to keep a "musket or firelock". However, persons younger than 18 and older than 45 regularly responded to call-ups of the Militia and were accepted as part of it. There were even some women who participated.
The Framers also insisted on a distinction between the "genuine"* Militia and a "select" militia, which they viewed as a danger, just as much a danger as a standing army. They did not want a militia whose members might consist of anything less than the entire people, or at least able-bodied ones in a certain age range, because if selected on any other basis, they might be used to oppress other parts of the population. *Editor's note: the word "genuine" is what is used in the Federalist Papers.
Actually, George Mason provided the best definition. It only needs to be broken out into various classes, representing the order in which persons would be called out for military service. Qualifications like "able-bodied" or "male" or "age 18-44" only establish who would be first called to service, with the expectation that they would be adequate for almost any situation, but it allows for calling up other persons if needed.
This suggests a hierarchy of classes:
1) National Army.
a) Full-time: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard. b) Part-time: Reserves, National Guard.
2) State and Local Select Militia. But these are not "general" militias. They are paid and equipped by the State or by local governments.
a) Full-time: State and local law enforcement officers.
b) Part-time: State Guard, reserve law-enforcement.
3) Obligatory Militia: Able-bodied male citizens of a certain age range, who are required to be kept organized and trained, but at their own expense. Age range is 18-44 for federal purposes, but states may establish other age ranges.
4) Volunteer Militia: Citizens not part of obligatory militia who voluntarily participate in activities of the obligatory militia, again at their own expense.
5) Ready Militia: The combination of 3) and 4) above, who would be called up after the armed forces and the regular militia, but who are also those likely to be first on the scene in emergency situations. It is not a "select"" militia.
6) Reserve Militia: All other citizens, including children, the elderly, the less-able, and women, and perhaps foreign visitors as well, who might be called up after the ready militia, if needed.
What is missing from the current picture is the ready militia. Most states now lump it in with what we are here calling the reserve militia, and in fact often call it that. The ready militia is what the Framers meant when they used the term "militia". It is also what the Swiss mean by the term, and it was the Swiss model that the Framers had in mind for the United States. The ready militia was to serve as a counterbalance to the armed forces and regular state (select) militias.
It should be noted that the obligatory militia is usually defined to exempt certain public officials, and perhaps persons with certain occupations, whose usual duties are considered essential.
Choice of words can be indicative. 10 USC 311 lumps the ready and reserve militias into what it calls the "unorganized" militia, with the implication that it is to remain unorganized, since no provisions for organizing and training the ready militia are given, contrary to the intent of the Framers.
Militias are local and independent
Often heard are arguments about whether militias are state or national, but the militia, like citizenship, is fundamentally local. We are first and foremost citizens of our local community. The word "citizen" has the same root as the word "city". Although people may also be concurrently citizens of larger political entities, such as states or the nation, and although those entities may be considered to be composed of their citizens, they are essentially composed of localities, and it is the local community that is the basis for the social contract, although it may be considered to include a certain amount of surrounding territory. Today we would usually identify the locality with the county.
Just as militias are essentially local, so also are they essentially independent of established authorities, since the militia may have to challenge or bypass those authorities if they abuse their authority or fail to perform their lawful duties. The legal basis for assemblies of militias are two natural rights: the right to assemble and the right to keep and bear arms. Combined, they are the right to assemble bearing arms. The Framers considered it obvious that rights which could be exercised separately could be exercised in combination, and would have thought present attempts to outlaw independent assemblies of militia units as absurd. The term "well-regulated" used in the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution did not mean "regulated by some official". It meant "well-trained and disciplined". A militia can and should be self-regulated. The U.S. Constitution, in Article I Section 8, does provide for States to organize and train their militias according to standards established by the U.S. Congress, and to appoint the officers, but it was not the intention of that clause to authorize states to forbid local organization and training of militia units, but to require that they be organized and trained. If the state fails to do so, people have not only the right but the duty to organize and train themselves locally, using their own arms. Just as they have the right and duty, failing action on the state level, to conduct elections, enforce the laws, establish courts, and so forth.
Of course, a militia unit that is not called up by any official, but by its own members, does not have the authority to compel participation through some kind of sanction, such as the imposition of a fine. Therefore it will be composed of volunteers, who may not represent a cross-section of the general population. In this situation, the militia members must make a special effort to avoid having the militia unit take on the attributes of a private association, such as by always calling up the militia using public notices, and allowing any responsible citizen to participate. It must also avoid any suggestion of partisan or sectarian bias, and limit itself to constitutional actions.
To do this, a militia unit should always refer to itself as the "[state/county] militia" and not adopt a name that would suggest some kind of private association, something that would expose its members to legal action against it as a legal "person" or as a "conspiracy". There can't be a conspiracy of the entire population of an area, and a court can't serve the entire population with process, even if not all of them are present at meetings.
Militia units of 50-200 members should be organized at the local level, by going house by house, covering entire neighborhoods, towns, and counties. This will initially be easier to do in rural areas, where people are already more receptive to the patriotic message. In urban areas, it may work better to start by organizing "neighborhood associations", then educating the members gradually until it can be converted into a self-conscious militia unit. Co-ordination among local units should be done using correspondence committees, which is the traditional method. These committees do not attempt to act as regional,, state, or national organizations, but only to facilitate communications among local units, the sharing of literature, and the building of a consensus for action.
Some units might try to publish newsletters or other documents, but in most cases, it will be better to publish through established magazines and various alternative media, and distribute extra copies. Members may agree to subscribe to media that co-operate in publishing supporting materials.
Dealing with official resistance
For some time now the Establishment has discouraged the formation of armed groups, including independent constitutional militias. They don't want the "unorganized" militia to become organized. Besides legal and illegal harassment, militia leaders must prepare participants to deal with attempts to infiltrate militia units. This can take three main forms:
Moles. Agents who pretend to be trustworthy but who are mainly focused on obtaining information about militia members and their activities.
Provocateurs. Agents who pretend to be responsible members, then, when least expected, do something which seeks to discredit the militia and perhaps provoke official action against it.
Dissipators. Agents who pretend commitment until they can assume positions of influence within the group, then use it to divert them into ineffective or unproductive activities, such as endless debate, socializing, and divisive disputes, or to reduce morale and resolve.
The best protection against infiltration is to teach members to be vigilant to it and to have a large number of small units and many leaders, none of whom is critical. There should be little or no leadership on the state or national level, other than a network of correspondence committees that facilitate communications. It is also important to try to establish good relations with local and state officials, to the extent possible. Work with them to help them solve the problems of the community, and encourage them to ask the militia to assist them. Resistance from such officials should be countered by getting better ones elected or appointed.
Subjects for action
One of the most important subjects for action by local militia units is investigation of election fraud and other kinds of official corruption. It will do little good to try to elect better officials if elections are rigged, and if they are, the militia may become the only way for citizens to secure their rights. If such fraud is found, it will also help to build public support for further militia action and for greater participation.
Another key subject is to inform citizens of their right and duty, when serving as jurors in cases in which the government is a party, to judge the law and not just the facts in the case. No matter how despicable the defendant in a criminal case or how heinous the offense, the jury must find the defendant not guilty if the law under which he is charged is unconstitutional or misapplied. It is unconstitutional if it violates a constitutional right, is not based on a power delegated to government, or is so vague that honest people may disagree on how to obey or enforce it. It is misapplied if it is applied to acts outside its proper jurisdiction, such as a federal criminal law applied to acts committed on state territory, or to acts not intended to be included by the lawmakers.
One of the most important subjects for action will be to establish an alert system for warning of abuses of citizens by organs of the government, and mobilizing to defend them. It must be emphasized that it is not enough for citizens to defend their rights in isolation. Only if they band together can their rights be protected.
Education in constitutional law must also be a priority. Every citizen must be trained to interpret the constitutionality of laws and official acts, and taught that doing so is the responsibility of each individual, that it cannot be delegated to others, such as judges or superiors. That is the Lesson of Nuremberg. Special attention needs to be given to educating lawyers, judges, officials, and college and high school students. Militia members need to make sure that every public library contains suitable books and magazines that provide education on these subjects.
Morgan Norval, ed., The Militia in 20th Century America: A Symposium, 1985
Available from Gun Owners Foundation, 5881 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.
Stephen P. Halbrook, That Every Man Be Armed, 1984
Available from the Independent Institute, 134 98th Ave, Oakland, CA 94603.
James M. & Kenneth F. Collier, Votescam: The Stealing of America, 1992
Available from Victoria House Press, 67 Wall St #2411, New York, NY 10005.
Copyright (c) 1994 Constitution Society
The primary unit in any resistance or guerilla movement is the team or squad. A fire team shall consist of between two and five persons. Two fire teams (over six persons) will operate as a squad; a squad being two fire teams. The key is to operate in the smallest sized unit possible.
The fire team will consist of a team leader, and whatever additional persons capable of bearing arms that join him. The standard configuration of a fire team will be as follows:
1. TEAM LEADER. This is the person responsible for developing the unit. He or she will set up training for the team, establish and maintain unit cohesiveness. This is the person whom the team feels that they are most likely to rally around. He or she directs team fire and maneuver during combat. The team leader should lead by example. He or she maintains contact with higher elements in the unit. The team leader should be agreed upon by the whole team. The fire team leader also locates meeting places for team meetings, which should occur on a regular basis.
For organizational clarity, in communications, the team leader will be designated as unit one, so if your fire team is Team Katana, then your team leader is Katana One.
2. COMMUNICATIONS PERSON. This is the team's radio operator. It is hoped that each fire team's communications operator has an amateur radio license. A hand-held CB or family radio may also suffice. This person understands some basic radio operating procedures, and aids the team leader in keeping in contact with other units. It is also a good idea to have at least one person in the fire team with a computer, to send and receive e-mail, publish newsletters, and even establish a web page for your fire team.
Your commo person is unit two, so in our hypothetical fire team, the radio operator is Katana Two.
3. MEDIC. The person in your fire team with the highest level of medical training will be your team medic. It is hoped that your team medic has at least the training of a Red Cross First-Responder. The more training, the better , and it is not unheard of for a team medic to be an EMT or paramedic. Your medic will check on the overall field health and sanitation conditions of the team. Medics are also responsible for checking each person's first aid gear. Team medics should carry additional medical gear, over and above that required for individuals. They are also responsible for aiding the team leader in checking individuals' water supplies.
We will call the medic unit three, so Katana Three is Team Katana's medic.
This is a good basic three-person fire team.
Additionally, we may round out the fire team by adding a couple of riflemen to the team. Everybody is a rifleman. Riflemen are responsible for maintaining a high level of combat readiness. A rifleman assists the team leader and other members in maintaining the unit. He or she may also serve as a communications person or medic, and these are things that all militia persons should strive for. Riflemen are the backbone of every armed ground forces in the world.
Let's look at a couple of more specific rifleman positions that you may include in your unit.
4. HEAVY GUNNER. This is the person who has the large capacity magazines for his rifle. It is also the person who is capable of carrying a lot of ammo. Heavy gunners are used for suppressive fire, covering likely avenues of approach, and even possibly engaging aircraft, should that ever be called for. This is the civilian militia version of a machine-gunner, and should be considered as such for employment in the field.
The heavy gunner, should you have one, will be unit four. Otherwise, unit four is a rifleman.
5. TEAM MARKSMAN. Well placed, accurate shots are the job of your team marksman. He or she should be capable of placing first round hits on a head-sized target at whatever range is considered practical and applicable. A good rifle with good optics are best for this position, but any rifleman should be considered a potential marksman. The marksman may be someone in your team who is a hunter, target shooter, or just in tune with the woods. Perhaps this person can help with rifle instruction and training.
If you have a team marksman, he or she is unit five.
Five people is really the biggest size for a fire team, because five people can usually fit in one vehicle. If your team grows beyond five, then you should consider breaking into two fire teams.
Your team members should all know where each other lives, and should be in touch with each other at least weekly. Quite possibly, your team meetings can rotate amongst your members' houses.
Communications should be set up within the team, using e-mail, beepers, or radios if the distance permits.
It is possible that you may have team members who have no desire to ever go to the field and train. Consider this to be your team FIELD SUPPORT element. There is much to be done that does not require field work.
Also, you may have members who just haven't managed to pass any line qualification. As long as the rest of the team is comfortable with that, then it's okay. We feel that Level 1 is a good basic measure of a citizen's ability to bear arms, and your team leader should make an effort to do so.
The important thing is to develop fire teams as soon as possible.
Lee's instruction on formation of the basic guerrilla Fire Team is logical and clear. The foundation of any squad is the unity of purpose which enables the team to work as a coordinated unit. Team Leader is a position, not a person. Should the Team Leader be lost, the next member becomes Team Leader and the mission continues. It is therefore, extremely important that Fire Teams train AS A UNIT. They must develop as a unified whole, each man/woman knowing the strengths and weaknesses--each acting as support and backup for the other. This is often called the "two-deep concept."
Communications within and between small units is critical to mission success. It is important to understand some very basic rules and procedures for operating a radio or other piece of communication equipment.
1. Transmit only when necessary. Not only will idle chatter distract the receiving party, it may compromise his and your positions, and all communications may be monitored and triangulated. Do not discuss the weather, sports scores, or anything that doesn't apply to the success of the current mission.
2. Limit your transmissions to no more than FIVE seconds each. Anything longer than five seconds is enough time to almost guarantee that anyone with even moderately effective equipment can find you. Insert breaks in any transmissions that need to be longer.
3. Never use actual names, addresses, or anything else that is sensitive over the air. Never use a personal name over the air. Use their fire team unit and position designation, if you know it, for example, Katana One. Make up something using the person's initials if you have to. Use personal reference points to keep information secure. For example, if one of your fire team members is a postal worker, refer to them as such, if you have to. Never, ever, ever use a person's real name over the air. Ever.
Never use addresses, unless you can encode them somehow (more on that later). Use place names that the unit may have developed. Examples can be "The Badlands", or "The Wheat Farm", or "the place where Havoc Three spilled his enchiladas". If you have to use a location, try to use a pre-determined set of grid references, like in your Delorme Gazetteer map of the counties in the state, but never broadcast which maps you are using openly. For example, you can say, "Green Book, page (whatever), B5." Where the green book is a certain map book. Make sure that everyone has the same edition of that book, to avoid confusion.
4. Always speak clearly. This should be a given. Never pause on the air. Know what you are going to say BEFORE you key the mike. Know what your response is BEFORE you key the mike. DO NOT pollute the airwaves with unnecessary "ummms", "ahhhhs" and anything else that announces cluelessness over the air. Do not key the mike while looking up some information. Do not key the mike unless you are prepared to speak.
5. Do not "step" on each other. Always say, "over" when it is time for the other guy to talk. Always say, "break" when you still have more to say but are breaking the transmission to keep it short. When two other people are talking to each other, do not jump in unless they call you.
6. Acknowledge the reception of information with a brief repetition of it. For example, "A" might transmit, "Move your team up 200 yards to the fence line, then go north to the crest and cover the field to your west when we are ready to move"; "B" would respond with, "Up 200, cover from crest, OK". This lets both parties know that each other understands, without any errors or excess, "Did you understand what I said?" back and forth several times.
Directions should be given from a specific, unmistakable reference. The other guy doesn't always know what you have in mind; "Go left" - (whose left, yours or mine?), "Come back toward the trees" - (which trees?), "We're behind you" - (200 yards back along the trail, or 20 feet away?). If it can be misunderstood, it will be.
7. Do not get into pissing contests over the air, with ANYBODY. EVER. PERIOD.
8. Always have an alternate frequency, and another back-up for that. Always have a fall-back frequency or channel, in case you get compromised, stepped on, or get into the previously mentioned pissing contest. Make sure that everyone knows what these back-up channels are. Make sure that everyone in the net understands when it is time to change channels, either by a predetermined code word, or at a pre-set time. When it is time to change channels, make sure that you do a commo check with everyone on the new channel to make sure that they have indeed switched over.
9. Change channels on a regular basis anyway. Even if you are not compromised, you should change channels at least every 24 hours. If you are limited to the number of channels you have access to, just rotate your primary, back-up, and alternate back-up frequency very 24 hours.
10. Have a pre-determined code. Even a simple 123ABC grid reference of some sort may do the trick here. Simply get a three-by-five card and write a five-by-five square grid on it, with five numbers on top, and five letters on the left side. Fill in the alphabet, randomly. Change daily. Use this if you have to spell things out securely. If you want to include numbers, simply use a six-by-six set of squares, and add numbers, randomly, into the grid. If you need to, put each day's frequency on these cards. Guard these closely. This is the militia equivalent of the military CEOI (communications electronics operators instructions), and radio operators are instructed to die to prevent these from falling into enemy hands. Maybe you should limit these to your team leaders and radio operators.
11. Never discuss guns, ammo, or anything of the sort on the air. Use colorful euphemisms if you need to. For example, you could refer to training as "going to the dance", guns as "tools", and ammo as "boxes of candy".
12. Always let someone know when you are going to be off the net. If you are changing batteries, or shutting down for any reason, let someone on the net know, and let them know approximately how long you will be off the air, and alert them when you are back on the net. If it would compromise your situation, do not discuss why you are shutting down. Just make sure that someone knows.
13. Learn the military phonetic alphabet. It is pretty much common sense to pick it up. Some of you may use the police phonetic alphabet. The two are different, and we should probably learn them both.
14. DO NOT DISCUSS ANYTHING THAT YOU DON'T WANT TO TELL THE WORLD ON ANY AIRWAVE, CHANNEL, NETWORK OR FREQUENCY. EVER, EVER, EVER. ALWAYS ASSUME THAT YOU ARE BEING MONITORED, BECAUSE YOU PROBABLY ARE. DO NOT SEND ANYTHING OF QUESTIONABLE LEGALITY THROUGH/VIA/OVER E-MAIL EITHER.
This is the format to be used when submitting intelligence reports:
S: Size of the unit or formation you have observed. Number of persons or vehicles visible.
A: Activity of unit, persons, or formation you have observed. Clearly describe what you have seen them doing, include direction and speed of movement.
L: Location of what you have observed. Distance and direction from nearest intersection, an address, or an eight-digit grid coordinate will work.
U: Unit or uniform. Describe what they were wearing. Describe any insignia, signs, banners, or flags. Note type of camouflage.
T: Time and duration of your observation.
E: Equipment they carried or were using. As best as you can, describe they types of weapons and gear that you observed. this includes communication gear, weapons, and vehicles.
Pictures and sketches are always encouraged, but never place yourself at risk to get a picture when a description will suffice.
A - alpha
B - bravo
C - charlie
D - delta
E - echo
F - foxtrot
G - golf
H - hotel
I - india
J - juliet
K - kilo
L - lima
M - mike
N - november
O - oscar
P - papa
Q - quebec
R - romeo
S - sierra
T - tango
U - uniform
V - victor
W - whisky
X - x-ray
Y - yankee
Z - zulu
You will learn more of this as you do it. Also, be advised that militia persons may tend to co-mingle CB jargon with any radio communications. Make sure you brush up on that, as well.
Camouflage is anything you use to keep yourself, your equipment and position from looking like what they are. Personal camouflage has certain simple rules that will defeat the most obvious sensor on the battlefield; the human eye.
SHAPE. Your helmet, load bearing web equipment, rifle and other gear have a clear, often square shape, and there are no squares in nature. Break up straight lines with strips of burlap, camo cloth or netting in shades of brown and green. Elastic bands can be sewn to your uniform or equipment straps to facilitate adding camo strips or vegetation. Camo materials should not be attached to your rifle in areas where they may slip and interfere with your firm grip or the mechanical operation of the weapon. It is better to cover the weapon with paint or camouflage tape.
SHINE. Most modern military equipment uses plastic or subdued painted metal fasteners and buckles. If the paint has worn off or you are using commercial equipment with shiny buckles, these need to be covered with paint or tape. Other shiny surfaces that can reflect light include binoculars, compasses, watch crystals, unshaded rifle scopes, plastic map covers and eyeglasses. Little can be done about eyeglasses other than using headgear with a low brim or mosquito netting, but other shiny equipment should be stowed away when not needed and used with caution. Shine also includes light-colored skin, even at night when it will reflect moonlight and flares. Face masks make a surprisingly big difference at night.
SILHOUETTE. Similar in many respects to shape, silhouette includes the outline of the human form and the equipment it is carrying. The shape of the head and shoulders of a man are unmistakable and a bare helmet attracts attention. The use of local vegetation as garnishing helps break up your silhouette. Thick handfuls of grass tucked into your shoulder straps are especially useful in breaking up the distinctive "head and shoulders" shape of the human figure and vegetation added to a helmet breaks the smooth curve of the top and the line of the brim. Take care not to overdo adding local vegetation. You shouldn't need a machete to hack a path through your camouflage to get at your ammo pouch or other necessary equipment. Also, a large bush or tree is sure to attract attention when it starts to move. Silhouette also includes field craft. However well camouflaged you may be, it is little help if you "sky line" yourself by walking along the top of a hill or ridge line, or if you stand against a background of one solid color.
SMELL. Even the most urbanized man will develop a good sense of smell after a few days in the open. He will be able to detect engine smells, cooking, body odors and washing. Some smells are hard to minimize. Soaps should be scent-free and activities such as cooking should be confined to daylight hours when other smells are stronger and the air warmer. Rubbish from cooking should be carried away from your operational area and buried only as a second choice. Buried objects are often dug up by animals and can give a good indication of the strength and composition of your patrol or unit as well as its morale. The discipline of refuse removal is important.
SOUND. You can make a lot of noise while out on patrol. Your boots can squeak. Your cleaning kit or magazines can rattle in your ammo pouches. Heavy pack frames can creak. Fittings on your weapon can rattle. Radios can have background noise. Coughing and talking can carry for long distances, especially at night; although, whispering doesn't carry. You must become familiar with a silent routine in which hand signals replace the spoken word and conversations are conducted in a whisper. Proper stowage of your gear, taping of slings and other noisy equipment and a final shakedown before a patrol moves out will reduce noise. If digging a position, place sentries far enough out that they will spot an enemy before he hears the sound of digging.
COLOR. Though most modern combat uniforms are in a disruptive pattern camouflage, there may be times when this is less helpful. The trouble with camo clothing is that in the wrong environment, like cities, it stands out and says "Hey, look at me!" If fighting in built-up areas, a pattern of greys, browns and dull reds would be more useful than the typical woodland BDU pattern. Natural vegetation used to garnish helmets and equipment will fade and change color. Leaves will dry and curl up exposing pale under surfaces. You may have put dark green ferns and leaves into your helmet band while in the woods and then find yourself moving through an area of pale open grassland. Check and change your camouflage regularly.
The most obvious color that needs camouflaging is that of human skin, and for that you need G.I. camo stick or, preferably, a commercial camo cream. G.I. camo sticks are issued in loam and light green for use in areas with green vegetation. A sand and light green stick is used in areas lacking green vegetation. A loam and white stick is for use in snow covered terrain. If camo sticks or creme are not available use burnt cork, bark or charcoal for the dark color and mud for the light color. Dark colors are used to reduce the highlights formed by the nose, cheekbones, chin, ears and forehead. Lighter colors are used in areas of shadow under the eyes, nose and chin. When applying camo to your face it is useful to work with a buddy and help each other. G.I. camo sticks are rough on the skin and difficult to apply. A few drops of baby oil, skin lotion or insect repellent rubbed on the skin first will make it much easier to apply. Skin camo needs to be periodically touched-up as you move and sweat. A simple pattern for the face is to apply a light color first to the entire face and then add dark diagonal stripes. The diagonals cut though and break up the horizontal and vertical lines of the eyes nose and mouth.
Good camouflage is almost as important as good marksmanship. A well camouflaged man who is a poor shot will probably survive longer than the poorly concealed expert sniper.
We welcome ideas and suggestions for additions to this Team leader Guide. If your unit or outfit has something similar, we would like to see it.